12 May 2022


An article written in 2009 by Dr. Massimo Teodorani, Astrophysicist, Bestselling author, Electronic musician 



While a layperson might be completely mystified by these suggestive images, a Medieval art historian would only need to know that they were located in the upper corners of a depiction of Christ’s crucifixion to identify them. ”

“Need to Know” vs. “Need to Believe” in Ufology

How authentic is UFO documentation? A lot of factors demonstrate – doing a simple analysis – that most of UFO photographic material, in particular the ones that circulate on the web, are totally unreliable. It is not only a matter of lack of scientific method; it is mostly a simple matter of lack of common sense.

The common sense of people is constantly made a fun of, and the reasons for this are many, the most important of which, is the emotional effect caused by the imaginary collective.

UFO iconography is a drug , and can be used to switch minds in many ways. Also to collect proselytes to make up new fanatic religions, but more generally to give people a sort of psychological medicine with which people can escape from the hard reality of everyday life, where the continuous competitions of present society often obscure the human and spiritual dimension: people need to retrieve the very nucleus of their soul.

This intimate need is clearly legitimate, but it is also risky: in fact persons who are not rationally grounded are very easily subjected to manipulation: it seems that most people in the world are just in this condition, especially in our epoch. When critical thinking starts to lack, those who lead this society has at his disposal a huge mass of sheep, ready to follow alleged miracles, Savior aliens and other gurus.

The less people think in a grounded way the less people are conscious of what is happening around them. This is the effect of UFO iconography.

1. The roots of delusion and the role of science

Let’s try now to see how people are diverted by reality by means of “UFO documentation” that is growing online more and more every day.

Apparently the UFO phenomenon is escalating…. Is it a real escalation of sightings? The answer is no, because what we have here is an escalation of fakes and/or ephemeral information, the propagation of which nowadays is vectored and amplified by the media, in particular by Youtube.

Let’s now show some examples describing how the phenomenon develops.

Of course the phenomenon of interest here is the social one, because many evidences show that the “UFO phenomenon” is still not-well defined in the intrinsic sense. The reason of this is that rarely such a phenomenon can be observed by an objective and/or inter-subjective point of view: more often most UFO events are in reality the result of the “modulation” of subjective factors – a sort of magnifying and/or aberration lens – so that any potentially considerable objectivity remains very questionable.

In such a way the coordinates, with which a possible UFO event should be fixed are not defined at all.

What we really know of this is more similar to the “cloud of probability” with which the position of a quantum particle can be statistically evaluated, but without any Newtonian determinism. This is because what we have at our disposal as data is constituted only by photos/videos and witnesses: in some cases we have both and in some others we have only one of the two.

In particular, the witness of a given UFO event, when this event is not statistically significant or coherent within the same statistics, doesn’t furnish a real map of what happened due to the many contradictions, subjective manipulations and constructions of the witness: here some visual testimony is continuously mixed with unconscious or subconscious factors: objectivity is always melted with subjectivity.

This constant uncertainty renders the scientific treatment of the UFO phenomenon very difficult, unless such phenomenon can be effectively monitored and measured in areas of recurrence using the appropriate instrumentation, which due to its intrinsic nature cannot be misled by any form of subjective thinking.

This is the only science that can be done on UFOs, but it is very difficult to achieve this task because, in spite of the recurrence of the phenomenon in certain areas of Earth, such a phenomenon is not a star that we can constantly find on the celestial sphere . It is a globally random object, whose space and time coordinates are very difficult to predict.

Truly unexplained anomalies do exist, and it is towards these that a scientific investigation can be addressed.

Are scientists really “sold to the system” when they arbitrarily deny the UFO phenomenon?

Scientists are used to investigate reality by doing measurements and calculations on *data*. They have been trained to distinguish what is worth investigating and what is not, in the sense that they are trained to discern the noise from the signal. This is due to their profession and forma mentis; it is not a question of “ignorance of the problem” as most people like to think. And science is not a collection of erudite dogmas, but a pure methodology, where critical thinking makes of science an “intellectual dynamics” in which old ideas can be often supplanted by new ones until, through subsequent approximations, a better vision of reality is built up in the most accurate way.

This vision of reality might be only the map of reality and not reality itself in its entirety. But so far there is no other way to approximate reality, than the scientific one. This is not an elite-style way of knowing the world for a few, but it is due to a pure human shared necessity to live and survive.  And this began when primitive man first decided to use animal bones as tools.

Of course science and its method can surely improve, and an “open mind” is the best approach to explore the Universe that surrounds us.

But if an open mind is not accompanied by feet well planted into the ground (namely: rigour) that mind is only a “brain” that is easily destined to fall from the skull to the ground.

The mind is generated by the brain, which stays up, while the ground is for feet and not for the brain. If we locate both the feet and the brain at their appropriate position then we can hope to build up a science.

Differently from what is now claimed by “new agers” concerning “emotional intelligence”, science can be done only by non-emotional intelligence. It is true that some aspects of quantum mechanics show that the observer interacts with the observed, but we have no scientific confirmation yet that consciousness is really able to generate reality.

This might occur at a certain level, or sublevel of reality, but we do not have yet a quantitative description of the phenomenon.  And until a mathematical treatment of this possibility (on which some physicists currently speculate and/or make reasoning based on solid work hypotheses) will be finally done, we cannot use subjectivity (otherwise called “qualia”) as a parameter of science.

Therefore we are still anchored to standard scientific methodology. This is what we have now, and in spite of several difficulties and drastic limitations, it is the only methodology that we can use to examine the scientific facts of ufology too.  Otherwise the “scientific house” is not built on a solid ground but on moving sands. That’s the reason why analysis of facts must be carried out only when these anomalies are validated to be true ones. This analysis can be done in two ways:

1) statistical evaluation of reliable witnesses and construction of physical scenarios;

2) direct instrumented measurements on the field.

2. Wrong perceptions and the power of illusions

Let’s now go back to the “UFO phenomenon” and try to look in more detail at the alleged “evidence” of it, the most important of which should be photos and videos.

In fact this is the only way through which an almost totally random and unpredictable phenomenon can be reported by ordinary people. But is this documentation really reporting UFOs?

Many provide evidence that such photos and videos may be more or less easily identifiable as prosaic objects. In many cases these objects are the result of misinterpretation of known natural and/or man-made objects, in many other cases the portrayed objects are deliberate hoaxes and fakes. Only in a few cases the anomalous phenomenon that is reported is real, even if an accurate comparative study shows that identifying it as such – namely a truly peculiar fact – is like to be able to hear the meow of a cat inside a square where 1000 persons are shouting all together.

But, again, in spite of the well-demonstrated existence of fakes (see Appendix), such a phenomenon – when it is not a-critically and dogmatically denied by the short intellectual horizons of some – is invariably and arbitrarily interpreted as “extraterrestrial spacecrafts” and “alien visitation” by most people.

The collective imaginary is really powerful socially. And it is just this uncritical way to present and to wave UFO events in general that averts and deters true scholars from attempting to study the even tiniest possibility that Earth might be visited by exogenous intelligence, in addition to discouraging scientists from exploring in depth still unknown natural phenomena whose physics (including a possibly “exotic” one, in case) might be providential to the solution of a lot of energy problems.

In principle scientists might also demonstrate that Earth is visited by other intelligence indeed, if only they wouldn’t be continuously deceived (and, not rarely, exploited by artful “ufologists”) by that which is presently a colossal “cloud of confusion” in which it is very hard to find data that are really worth examining.

In such a situation even open-minded scientists may start to have prejudices and doubts about the entire UFO stuff (psychological effects can be effective on scientists too, who are just humans like all the others), which can make them more away from the genuine facts.

So what is the result of all of this havoc created by badly-vectored information?

The result is that science doesn’t feel like investigating what might be a hugely important frontier of science, which, on the other side, remains in the hands of uncritical believers, hoaxers, fakers,  story-tellers at UFO congresses, fanatic sects, and even “PSYOP-ers”.

Therefore scientists do not like to get involved in the UFO matter only because they consider it risky for their career or because they are afraid of the gossip of colleagues, but mostly because it is their own independent choice, possibly dictated by some prejudices, but it is their choice to do so and not a “true imposition from the system” the notion of which is a mythological tale spread out by UFO conspiracy theorists.

But then the problem is that if science doesn’t explore and examine the phenomenon properly the chaos goes on reigning, with the result of a *total deception* all over this world and a devastating effect on the psyche of individuals and of society in general: this is a “subliminal weapon” that is manipulating at all the effects the world in its entirety. *Who* exactly has some interests in maintaining such a deceptive way of divulging the phenomenon? It is not so difficult to imagine it, and it will be speculated on later.

So how does all this develop? Let’s start from some examples of misinterpreted light and/or aerial phenomena.

Here is a typical example. Suddenly a photographer finds two strange lighted objects in one of his nightly photos; he makes Photoshop enhancements and discovers two UFOs in the night sky: one is clearly a flying saucer surrounded by a fascinating aura, while the other acquired that strange shape due to an aberration of the lens or to an error of the auto-focus mechanism of the camera for objects that are just on the border of the frame (away from the optical axis).

Figure 1. Misinterpreted astronomic objects. Above. Photograph of the sky with contrast enhancement in order to make the stars come out in the field. Below. Sky map of the same region of sky. Circles identify the stars (plotted in altazimuthal mode) permitting a comparison between the photo and the sky map: stars are easily identified and the two strange objects (inside red circles) are confirmed to be two stars whose light is subject to some kind of aberration. (Test carried out by the author, using an HP Photosmart 945 digital camera)

Another hypothetical example:  After reading a book on “orbs” and related “spiritual and/or disembodied” beings a person sees  an orb with his own eyes, without even the necessity to use the flash of the digital camera in fact this is the only way in which “orbs” are classically photographed. And it appears in daylight, just inside the kitchen, on the ceiling. The orb is really fascinating and it is changing shape all the time by showing also clear 3-D effects: a spiritual being is just there, trying to get in touch with the targeted witness.

The phenomenon is persistent for several minutes, so the witness decides to take a photograph of it and a “visual orb” is now immortalized!

What happens in the mind of that person during those holy moments?

That person is severely drunken by suggestion and loses almost totally his relation with reality, namely the brain falls from the skull to the ground while the feet furiously flounder in the air .

In fact that “orb” – in the proper reality – was caused by his cat that was moving with his little paw the water inside his beloved water bowl.

What happened?

At that moment, the water was reflecting sunlight just over the ceiling and the movement of the “orb” was induced by the cat. Water worked just like a mirror but as that one is a “liquid mirror” that is moving all the time, it happens that the angle of reflected light-rays changes all the time at all the points of the water, so that it creates apparently three-dimensional and dynamical effects. This is not a scientific analysis, it is just common sense.

Why does a person suddenly lose his/her own relation with reality at certain moments? Is this a sign of endemic stupidity? Not necessarily. Inside all of us there is a need of the “absolute” and this is legitimate, of course.

But this can often cause a lot of unpleasant jokes to us: losing a contact with reality can be truly dangerous, and can become also contagious if this is propagated on Youtube for instance.

Figure 2. Misinterpreted ordinary object. Left. Orb-like light reflection on the ceiling of a kitchen. Center. The water-pot of the cat. Left. The cat looking satisfied and curious at the light-prodigy he himself created. (Test carried out by the author and his cat, using a Fujii Finepix S-2 Pro digital reflex camera)

And of course all of this deceiving perceptual effects regards “orbs” themselves too when they are obtained by taking photos using a digital camera and its flash.

Unless the object is moving very fast and/or presents particularly elaborated shapes (those might be true anomalies), the answer is invariably this: dust particles, snow flakes, pollen, smoke, insects, and even occasional hair’s dandruff, all reflecting the light of the flash.

It happens because all of these tiny objects are occasionally very close to the lens and therefore they are photographed out of focus with a consequent enlargement (from a tiny particle to a sort of “bubble”), while the light of the flash is reflected by these objects, which otherwise would be invisible.

Let me show you the results from my tests on taking photographs of insects using the flash, during a slightly rainy night.

Figure 3. Misinterpreted ordinary insects. The asymmetric luminous images above on the left and below are the result of the reflection of flash light on flying midges. The “orbs” that are spread all over the field of view are due to ground dust lifted by a slight wind in a very dusty area. (Test carried out by the author, using a Nikon Coolpix S-550 digital camera)

The amorphous lighted thing that can be seen in the photo is not an “etheric spacecraft” low in the sky, while sending down rounded “plasma beings”, but it is just an insect – plus other three more far away – that passed a few inches in front of the lens, while the “orbs” are due to dust particles floating in the air and reflecting the light of the flash.

Nevertheless, in some of the “UFO magazines” it will be possible to read that these ones are often “explained” as spacecrafts and alien beings, while “spiritual magazines” will explain all the kinds of “orbs” (all the rage with of New Age, nowadays) as disembodied beings or “ghosts” targeting us for some reasons.

How many articles of this kind are published in such magazines, especially on Internet?


Of course this doesn’t mean that all “orbs” can be explained with prosaic causes; there are some anomalies also in this field, but these are well-known only by serious scholars of such phenomena who attempt to distinguish a possible signal from a hugely spread pure noise.

These scholars do not assume arbitrarily that “orbs” are ghosts or aliens, but – in a very small selection of cases – they consider the possible existence of low-energy plasmas whose existence might be rendered visible by the photon-injection effect induced by the flash of a digital camera.

But people who are more wishful than scientifically thinking immediately make an association combining “disembodied beings” with “plasma phenomena”. The result is: “plasma beings”. And so the new dogma in which to believe is imposed to most of other ingenuous people, who drink all this a-critically by replacing the word “science” with the word “faith”.

If it wouldn’t be for the fact that all this is innocent in itself, the damage that is anyway done by propagation (namely: the alleged existence of “plasma beings”) is devastating, in addition to causing a consistent sociological damage to citizens, while serious UFO and/or paranormal research is totally discredited.

And there are of course, those who make money on it.

But let’s put this very clear: this doesn’t exclude at all that even “plasma beings” can exist. On the contrary, it might be possible, but not in the way in which “believers” approach the problem.

Believers systematically avoid any use of methodology and reasoning: they hang themselves to their “faith” thinking that the only reachable truth can be emotional and analogical.

And if some scientist discovers (or promotes physically consistent work-hypotheses in the field of fringe science) something that might be similar to what these persons perceive by faith, that scientist is systematically exploited by them without he/she even realizes it. This is a good reason for scientists and serious scholars to make their own research on anomalies “stealthy” and to publish possible results only cryptically on technical peer-reviewed journals: that’s the concrete reason why research on anomalies must be necessarily an “elite one”, away from the misinterpretation of the general public.

Now let’s imagine a story that sounds more or less like this:

Ooops…wh… what the *bleep* is that!!! I was just writing a paper on abductions and suddenly I see something  outside of the window, here, right now! A synchronicity, evidently. My heart is running like a machine gun, and I even hear voices in my head, as if something is very close to or just “inside” me… Well … I just had the camera with me. I need to document all of this immediately. It looks like a silent invasion outside. What is that???

<< Well… here the hall of this restaurant is so comfortable to write my UFO article using my faithful laptop. Suddenly behind me a hand is touching my shoulder and the hissing voice in the back of my head is getting stronger and stronger. I am afraid they are already inside and preparing to abduct me, when … I suddenly jump from the chair like a kangaroo. I turn back and unexpectedly I see the terrible reality: a waitress, after looking at the screen of my desktop just after I downloaded the photo from my camera, is telling me: “It is the chandelier’s reflection on the window, Sir”. >>

This is an example of what can happen and I also believe that in some cases even the “objective prompt” by the waitress is useless: the fellow often goes on believing that outside are UFOs landing close to that restaurant.

And so,  *this* is the phenomenon to be studied, at least also this. What happens in the mind of persons, sometimes? It happens also to well-cultured persons, not only to crackpots or to uneducated people. And this is extremely alarming.

Another hypothetical example: Suddenly a light appears and then it stands still in the air, a truly dazzling light. An UFO! And of course the self-suggestion induced by the particular circumstance immediately triggers the illusion of a telepathic contact, in reality this is caused by the inappropriate reaction time of mind when faced to some facts that cannot be easily or immediately cataloged within its experiential schemes.

Suddenly the  person starts to behave strangely, and in some cases that person – almost totally “abducted” by his/her own suggestion that meanwhile is self-amplifying more and more – might even create a new religious sect based on extraterrestrials, our saviours, of course.

Well…in the example that I report here, it was the landing light of an airplane, by the way, stopping in the air because the airplane was moving exactly along the sight line of the observer. But the “need to believe” is stronger than critical thinking and so a person assumes that it is an UFO: this happens to all of course; the problem is that only a few decide then to rationalize and to observe the fact – whatever it is – out of their subjective impressions or expectations.

Nevertheless, the propagation of misinterpreted facts, namely, an emotional state, in which people like to navigate makes the rest: it works practically like the geometric progression of water lilies multiplication, not in a little pond but in a lake of consistent extension. Disaster number one.

Of course the reaction of “skeptics” (if “unhealthily skeptical” they are another form of dogmatism, of opposite valence than the one above) is immediate: since then, all that which behaves in that way is just airplane landing lights and nothing else. Case closed.

And this is a second true disaster: a ruin against true knowledge and against a truly scientific way to treat facts, because this means simply “throwing away dirty bath water with the baby inside”.

And the effects of both disasters mutually feed each other. In fact it is so that possibly authentic UFO events continue to appear undisturbed in our skies and no scientific efforts are done to discover what they are.

As is it possible to see, all this is a socially “self-replicating machine”, the “lie-machine” that maintains us in the total ignorance, in addition to rendering who leads us stronger in the power of manipulation of the masses.

In practice this psycho-sociological mechanism is similar to what occurs with some very dogmatic religions.

Oh yes, just speaking of religions… I have had the on more than one occasion to be approached by people who belong to a very famous pseudo-religious sect.  One of them told me that he witnessed “light spaceships” and that such a miracle was appearing on his photos,  he said:  

<< I zoom on this bright spot and I can see the light spaceships in all their magnificence. They just appear because they read into my thoughts. >>

So, let’s tell what his discovery was. In fact I also did tests with my reflex digital camera. In some photos strange light spots were effectively coming out and if I resized the area of interest I was finding a sort of pink flying saucer.

The one below is one example.

Figure 5. Photoshop resizing of a light spot that occasionally forms in digital cameras. (Test carried out by the author, using a Fujii Finepix S-2 Pro digital reflex camera)


Well… no, not spacecrafts.

This is simply the effect of an anomaly that is often present in the CCD sensor of digital cameras. It simply means that all over the pixel matrix occasionally some pixels respond too much to light or they activate incorrectly due to some malfunction of the photo-electronic process in the CCD, and the effect that they produce when zoomed is just like the one above: not a “light spacecraft” but a defect of the CCD sensor, which I have often encountered in the types of digital cameras I have been using.

Of course  the opposite can also happen: dark spots that appear on photos taken at daylight. The interpretation by some is immediate: far flying saucers, balls, cylinders and mother-ships, which are monitoring us obviously.

Again no: they are simply caused by stain dust that occasionally deposits on the CCD sensor; the dust can enter very often inside when the lens is changed often with another one. It is sufficient to clean the sensor using the appropriate stain remover together with a cloth, and mother-ships suddenly disappear from the photo (not via teleportation to another space-time).

But many persons are going on posting these types of photos on the Internet and passing them for UFOs, and also some well-selling UFO magazines do the same when they do not know how to fill a monthly issue.

I might also include in the list of misinterpretations: owls photographed when illuminated by the beams of car headlights, birds or insects passing in front of the video camera at daylight, migrating bird flocks high in the sky in geometric formation, lights of little towns on the top of hills in a foggy weather, cars headlights affected by mirage-like refraction in desert areas, double reflections of the sun or the moon, planet Venus seen through quickly moving clouds, two or three-planets conjunctions: the owls suddenly become flying saucers or triangles in the starry night, birds and insects become dark spacecrafts in the clear sky, bird flocks become “flotillas” of spacecrafts monitoring the sky from up, bell towers in the fog are landing UFOs, cars become suddenly landed spacecrafts, double reflections become suddenly UFOs that want to be seen while we look at the moon, Venus becomes an UFO chasing us, planets very close together become a group of UFOs standing still in the sky, and there is much more!

The UFO phenomena that are reported and so irresponsibly published on the web are just this for 90% or 95% of the cases and people believe a-critically to an escalating UFO phenomenon, while some “ufologists” have artfully smelled the business, and some TV programs are doing even more.

So, and sadly, the study of true UFO cases is totally impaired.

Is this only due to credulity and lack of critical sense of people?

No, it is not only due to that. The secondary damage will be done immediately  by the so called “skepticals” who will so standardize their explanations without even trying to carry out true investigations case by case (… the so called “armchair ufology”…).

Therefore the disaster is double here, and the true UFO phenomenon goes on occurring, unperturbed and – above all – not scientifically studied, except for a handful of cases.

3. True lies

Let’s speak now of true lies concerning UFOs. Of course we do not consider here the intrinsic contradictions with which certain UFO “news” are propagated or even the confusion of facts and witnesses of the present with the ones of the past (an example here is shown in the Appendix at the end).

Let’s focus now on faked images that are presented like “crafts” from outer space.

By the way I just did three, and it took 30 minutes in total, by doing a few Photoshop manipulations. I simply used three kinds of chandeliers. And then I turned them into three different types of UFOs in the night sky.

The result is presented on the right of each of the three photos, together with the artefact from which they were originated (on the left of each photo).

Are we sure that someone will check at least the homogeneity of photo’s granularity and the way in which the light works in comparison with the environment in which the alleged UFO was photo-reported?

In fact I did these fakes deliberately rough just in case to test people minimum analytical and critical sense.

A few months ago a friend of mine, using very sophisticated software, did much better and posted a test-fake on Internet: the laughter was punctually assured, but the truth was soon revealed before the small snow-ball became an avalanche.

I didn’t use any sophisticated software but simply the most updated version of Photoshop software that is omnipresent in our computers.

In fact most people still now do not well realize that at their disposal they have a potential “subliminal weapon” in order to transform persons into remotely controlled zombies. And not only that: that’s a powerful method to discredit the entire true UFO research too.

Thirty minutes of working on the fakes using the Photoshop-howitzer, five minutes of downloading these (in this specific case, only virtually) on blogs, websites, Youtube and newsletters, and click: after the shot, the play is done. Internet itself makes the multiplicative effect and after a few days sensational news will start to circulate: at that point everyone will have even forgot the source of the “data”, while the cake will go on leavening, and even the dreams and psychic life of people who occasionally look at this crap will be affected.

A powerful social weapon, no doubt!

How many controls on the shameful diffusion of this deliberate misinformation / media terrorism? Zero!

We are a democracy, of course and everyone is allowed to tell all the *bleep* he/she prefers: or is this the manifestation of a *faked democracy* presented as a true thing?

Meanwhile the machine of money-making and the fever of ego-shows goes on exponentially. While somewhere obscure … hem… “Directors” …reunite the administration council in order to study carefully how citizens can be piloted/manipulated and how to take profit from all of this for several goals, namely: “how and where the shepherd will conduct sheep, this time”.

Consequently it is not so difficult to understand why, and how science is important in all of this stuff. Is it?

Science and rationality, applied also to the study of anomalies, have the true and concrete power to make citizens *leaders of themselves*, and, at the same time, a healthy and lucid distinction of grain from weed can open for us the door of new frontiers of knowledge and maybe also of new propulsion systems.

But some people prefer to dream rather than do. And it is on this that the “social status quo” is maintained. Therefore, where is exactly the so much praised “power of Faith” in moving our actions? Maybe here someone has confused the possibility to “believe in ourselves” (power of intention) to DO something with the blind faith on something external that works for us lazy individuals. From that is born: the faith in hoaxes too.

So now, let’s see my experiment as a faker at the beginner level.

Figure 6. Three UFO fakes built up by this author using Photoshop, the image retouch software. Left. Sources of the fake (three types of chandeliers). Right. Suddenly the UFO appears in the sky.

Let’s now plunge into the hardcore  … the abduction of a cow. In order to do this I used the image of a streetlight.

Look now at the result after 10 more minutes of faking:

Figure 7. Another UFO fake built up by this author using Photoshop software. Left. Source of the fake (a modern design of street lamp). Right. Suddenly the UFO appears in the sky and makes its action using a beam (often called “solid light” by ufologists).

Of course this is surely a UFO that is sucking up a cow or a large human using a “drawing beam”.

And now the pilot of the UFO who is carefully managing the lifting of the cow from a remote junction box, as it was photographed by an abducted person through a strange porthole, just inside, while our friend was looking at the control panel:

Figure 8. The ultimate Photoshop fake by this author: an alien being aboard the UFO.

Well… for respect of privacy apart from chandeliers and lamps, persons cannot be used in such a way. I couldn’t use the face of others to make the fake of the alien now. I just faked a photo portraying myself when I was a child. Here a challenge to experts: please, try to retrieve the original image. It is not an alien: it is me, after I “photoshopped” my childhood picture.

Let’s imagine now, what happens if I decide to perpetrate all this on Internet?

Experts and photo-technicians will be easily able to unmask these so naive fakes, including people who have some common sense. But some people will not, especially those who “want to believe”, whatever their education.

Therefore, if I had decided to post all this publicly, I would have added one more lie to the huge collection already out there. Not only that, but I would have been also responsible of a manipulation of the psyche of the unprepared public.

If I had really done this action I would have felt myself in fault, honestly.

But evidently there are many who go on with this and without scruples; after all it is so amusing to make a fun of the others, practically like when we make our cat play with the red spot of a Laser pointer: as everyone knows the cat becomes crazy and starts to follow the spot in an untiring manner.

In such a way we just “remotely control” the cat using his urge to chase the spot in order to make his life fuller of attractive plays.

We are doing exactly the same when we administer faked UFO photos to the public.

And in doing so we are committing a moral crime not only abusing people credulity and creating the roots of a potential social disorder and alarm, but also discrediting the serious efforts of some ufologists and scientists who spend much of their free time and money to investigate rationally (plus the necessary open mind) a problem that is indeed serious.  Unfortunately, this totally disappears from objective existence, due to the ocean of fakes and hoaxes of which the “UFO community” feeds itself, especially after the wide diffusion of Internet and Youtube, in particular.

In a few words faking and hoaxing destroys any attempt to carry out research on some true anomalies, of which we need urgently a scientific explanation.

In fact, carrying out serious research on UFOs , and even on the so called “paranormal” is not only a pioneering exploration of the frontiers of science with an intellectually enlightened goal in mind, but also a duty towards society.  A society that doesn’t deserve to be made a fun of, but which must work as a synergy of really awake citizens, one of the scopes of which is self-determination and also intellectual freedom.

4. A  case in Torrington

And what happens then when the faker is so lazy that he doesn’t even feel like making up an UFO by photo-manipulating known objects?

Of course he takes another UFO (of which – by the way – in its turn there is no proof of authenticity), rotates it of 180 degrees horizontally, and enhances colours and light, and the play is done.

It seems to me that something similar has happened  (March 2009), for instance concerning the Torrington UFO case too. The alleged “UFO” portrayed there is simply a manipulation of a quite old case, which was allegedly reported in Atlixco, Mexico, 1991 (see Appendix).

The way in which such an alleged old case has been “re-proposed” is truly childish, but yet: how many thousands of “believers” will fall into this trap?

Possibly many, too many…

Of course the faker thinks he is artful, because he wants to show the “morphological constants” of the UFO events, a worldwide phenomenon. Well, in doing that, he suddenly destroys the fact that effectively the true UFO phenomenon shows constants everywhere in the world, and the Torrington example given above might be really related to one or more true events.

But their possible authenticity has been devastated by a simple faked photograph for which it took only 3 minutes. In few words, the association of an entirely faked photo with possibly true sightings in that area can trigger in the short run some unpleasant effects, such as discrediting the efforts of serious scholars in true UFO research, and/or discrediting and offending the good faith and engagement of honest witnesses of possibly true facts.

The association of faked material (sent and widely spread by persons of doubtful preparation) with true events, is not only immoral in itself but also a devastating damage to the credibility of serious UFO research to the eyes of the public that is uninitiated in this delicate matter.

Here are additional suggestions on how to propagate even more the hoax starting from the original case from where it all began. It took 17 minutes to me to produce all this.


Figure 9. Various possibilities on how to fake an UFO case even more. Above. The “original” object photographed in Atlixco, 1991 (left). Three possible variants of new hoaxes that might be produced using the same photo (from left to right). Below. The same object was photographed in Europe too, in 1963 !!! This demonstrates the existence of a morphological constant all over the world (oh My…. Just the same object!): of course this is a joke as the 1963 case is another Photoshop trick.

Now just a brief note here. Are we totally sure that people will read carefully the content of this paper of mine? And that someone will not focus their attention only on images?  Will we see all this very soon on Internet, and will it be an even more useful test, just to verify if people read the content of a document or only focus their attention on images? Only time will tell.

Going back now to the subject that is discussed in the specific Torrington case, if the person who did that artefact wanted to make a simulation of what allegedly happened in the area using a previous UFO photo, he should have declared this explicitly and immediately, close to the photo that he spread in a so unscrupulous and cynical way: only in that way could he have behaved correctly.

So it easy to notice that a simple fake prepared in 3 minutes posted on the Internet (and, in some cases, published also in magazines and newspapers) is sufficient alone to destroy or at least seriously spoil a sequence of investigations that in that specific area are worth doing since at least decades.

This is the best way to totally block research on these anomalies, by just discrediting them by means of the perpetration of hoaxes, which in this case work exactly as a smoke curtain. So now the two fateful questions: Why? Who?

5. Why ? Who ?

Concerning the first question – Why? – there are several possibilities. The most mundane possibility is that human stupidity and dishonesty is the main constant of the problem.

A less mundane possibility is that someone who is really artful and who studied very deeply social sciences, using specific soldiers (“contractors”?) might have *ordered* a campaign of discredit concerning the UFO phenomenon for two possible (alternative) reasons: let’s now visualize these two possible scenarios with the words of their hypothetical wicked creators :

A) “….The social and economic situation is quite serious now and people sooner or later will start to react maybe in a disruptive way. Therefore let’s give them a social anesthetic (“intellectual bromide”?) so that they calm down and we have not to face too many problems with containing the unsatisfied masses ” ;

B) “….The UFO phenomenon is so widely diffused that we need to avoid the panic in the public and/or to shy away from showing our impotence in facing this problem, so that we have to discredit it totally and the best way to do this is to make so that true facts are mixed up with lies, so that the second destroy the first… We hire contractors, yes…”

In both scenarios we have a constant: to maintain social control by appealing to people’s credulity and intimate need of spiritual values that is typical of our materialistic and competitive society.

Concerning the second question – Who? – Well, it is much more difficult to depict possible scenarios. But certainly the *who* who decided to prepare this scenery is someone from up in our society, but not necessarily from the government which might be totally unaware of what is going on. How much “up”? Maybe here we have three speculative scenarios (one of which very extreme); let’s put it again in the hypothetical words of the personages who might be at the source of all of this staging:

A) “ We have a problem in conducting and controlling this society, so we now need to make a mass-test to see if and how much society is manipulable … And… why not… we also need to trigger the creation of new pseudo-religious sects (in addition to the other 3 famous ones – by the way – strangely untouched by the main skeptical societies) just to maintain faithful and obedient the sheep who are under our conduct.

Critical thinking is not desirable as it might be socially explosive so that we couldn’t easily move in our stealthy action in directing a society that must remain catatonic. We need a mass of stupid individuals: in few words a form of social lobotomy. So, let’s create a reality that doesn’t exist and that makes them dream so that they are diverted from concrete problems, and let’s put UFOs into their subliminal menu. ”

B) “ They are now more conscious of our existence; we cannot fly any more so easily in the skies of this dangerous planet. We need to hide better our presence. So let’s use our own techniques of mind control and let’s induce some people to spread hoaxes concerning us. The process will exponentially self-replicate and at that point none will believe in our existence, not even if we land on the lawn of the White House.

Moreover, we are very afraid of scientists who might unmask us and that perspective might be a threat to us. After all we found a so pretty hen-house here (the one that we also genetically care since hundreds of years), and we cannot make it escape from our possession.

Ah… And let’s not forget to send sometimes ELF pulses in order to affect the brain of these idiots: inducing hallucinations might be also helpful to discredit our existence. And let’s be fast… there is one guy at Laurentian University somewhere there who discovered in a lab how some waves affect the brain.

Let’s not permit him to build up a potential shield against any source of EM waves affecting human bioelectric activity. Meanwhile let’s go on inducing the diffusion of the fake telling that human HAARP is responsible for all of this. ”

C) “ Since eons I am The King of this world (and the way in which I have been portrayed by Church is simply ridiculous).

The parallel dimension in which I live is very comfortably safe and – me, the monkey of God – I play with these monkeys like with the marbles of billiards and it is a pleasure for me to use my stick to put the one against the other, according to my needs, as Earth is mine such as many other planets.

As a Prince of the Air, my force is in the power of inducing illusions in the psyche of people and also in the ability to create things and artificial life forms from the nothing – including the “soldiers” I need – by moulding them according to the mankind’s beliefs of the moment.

Oh… I know quite well the “hidden iceberg” of quantum mechanics of which these monkeys know only the tip, I am the King of *scalar waves*, the Technologist of mind-matter interaction and the Emperor of Illusion. ”

Clearly scenarios B) and C) are very exotic indeed: yet the way in which the worldly society goes often brings some of us to this kind of speculation. After all none can demonstrate yet the non-existence of aliens visiting Earth or of the atavistic Mr. X. And maybe there might be also intermediate combined scenario such as: C) interacting with A), B) interacting with A), B) and C) being the same thing, or even B) and C) totally nonexistent, for instance. Of course these are only mere thought experiments, but looking at the mechanism with which hoaxes occur I might feel myself tempted – as it occurred above – to make some reflections.

6. UFOs that are realities and hoaxes at the same time

Any scientific evidence for one of the three scenarios ventured above? Maybe yes. And this evidence might be simply given by the fact that hoaxes are not only happening after Photoshop manipulations of known image,s but the nature of the UFO phenomenon itself might be a deliberate hoax (or at least a part of it) on a large scale, of very sophisticated nature evidently. Let’s make an important example here.

A person who took many UFO photographs in a “recurrence area” of the world, who also learned with time the use of optical spectroscopy, has been careful and also technically precise, methodical and constant in monitoring the phenomenon occurring in his area, while the analysis of those images has been carried out canonically and precisely and left no space to doubts regarding what came out.

But monitoring what, exactly?

A careful spectroscopic analysis shows an entire physical nonsense concerning alleged propulsion of such “UFOs”.

Really the propulsion system of an exotic flying machine isn’t able to leave any track in our atmosphere other than a prosaic continuum spectrum (totally devoid of spectral lines), which can be highly suspected to be due to some kind of aircraft whose illumination system is halogen or tungsten light?

No atmospheric spectral lines showing any effects of “magnetic propulsion” such as the Zeeman Effect, no sign of electrical effects such the Stark effect? No release of substances in the air of some sort, which would be well detectable through spectral lines of specific chemical elements, that are in case altered by the fields produced by that hypothetic engine?

And yet normal aircrafts do not perform such acrobatics and/or change into an (just) apparent “plasma cloud”.

Are aliens really so stupid and totally lacking in tactical and strategic sense to show an apparently ordinary illumination system?

Do UFOs use illumination lamps on their surface?

Do a presumably cautious alien intelligence visiting Earth really use an illumination system to be seen by people?

It is highly doubtful that such an exogenous mind, which has never really searched for an open and official contact and dialogue with mankind (this would be strategically logic in order not to be threatened by our aviation) leaves some nonsensical markings of its presence in the sky.

Of course a continuum spectrum may be produced by different means than halogen or tungsten light and a flux calibration of such spectra might be attempted anyway (in comparison with the same procedure for airplane lights): but this time-consuming procedure would be justified if really that “light phenomenon” manifests highly anomalous movements in the sky, such as erratic and zigzag motion, sudden change of colour or anyway a really peculiar behaviour that cannot be explained by headlights while an aircraft is maneuvering (even acrobatically), turning, changing directions, etc.

This would be physically interesting, especially if such a phenomenon were plasma.

But there is no real scientific interest in what these (evidently artificial) lights show except for the fact that for several years they “like to be seen by people”. This is the aspect of the problem that should be investigated in-depth due to the concern it creates.

Why do these “lights” want to be seen so often?

Maybe here the real and subtle strategy might consist in creating an illusion in the sky in order to induce and then test reactions from people, maybe also with the purpose to manipulate them, in the same way in which the alleged apparition of the “Virgin Mary” in some places of the world is able to attract and drive large crowds of persons.

One thing is clear: those lights, in spite of their apparently spectacular nature, are not at all what we would expect from alien visitors, unless they decided to use some form of (pathetic) mimicry to try to imitate an airplane of ours, both in the manifested lights and in the produced sounds. And if so, in spite of their use of an ordinary system of illumination, they would anyway render their behaviour stealthy to our science measurements, meaning that they would hide their propulsion system in some way by camouflaging with some ridiculous light.

Alternatively, they might not be alien visitors at all, but simply an application of alternative scenarios (A) and/or C). For sure the military have at their disposal several “illumination artefacts” (a few years ago I received a private communication concerning such an issue by a researcher working just on this) and they, together with sounds and other devices, use them as a form of “psychological warfare”.

If this possibility (including also the C) scenario, whatever its exoticity may be, if we do not want to blame the military) is true then we have a scientifically unmasked example of “Authentic UFO phenomenon that is a Fake itself, to be administered to the masses”, created in order to cheat and deceive mankind, as a *control system*. Probably Dr. Jacques Vallee knows already much of this.

Once more, the evidence is this: physical nonsense concerning propulsion. But it would be interesting to see what happens elsewhere in the world, even if taking a well-done spectrum is not at all an easy operation: and, in order to build up a good statistics, spectral gratings should be distributed to many citizens who then should attach them to their cameras.

Of course a true scientific investigation of UFO phenomena demands the use of complete instrumentation to be deployed simultaneously. For instance: taking optical spectra, videos and photos needs to be accompanied also by the measurement of the electromagnetic field and of the magnetic field and by the monitoring of the infrared spectrum, all of which supported by radar and/or Laser telemetry and range finding.

Deploying all of this, in addition to being economically very expensive, is quite difficult, especially because true UFO phenomena occur mostly unexpectedly and randomly. But there are indeed areas of recurrence in the world, one famous example is given by the Hessdalen lights in Norway. This regards mostly anomalous light phenomena of probable geophysical and/or atmospheric origin, and several continuing scientific monitors have been attempted in the recent past by several research teams.

Clearly the same methodology described above can be put in practice also in the case of UFOs that are suspected to be of technological nature. An analytic approach can very quickly rule out fakes, hoaxes, true natural phenomena, or misinterpreted facts.

But what then if someone discovers that the hoax doesn’t only imply classical fakes, but also a possible “MOAH” (acronym for “Mother of All Hoaxes”), deployed on a worldly scale, that is truly flying over our heads? Science can unmask this too (as it was already tested in the specific case that has been just discussed), and maybe someone or something should start to tremble, because sooner or later the analytic monitoring using appropriate optronic units might be systematically extended to all Earth.

The scenario that has been discussed right now doesn’t mean that all true UFOs are the product of some artful illusionist.

Something technological might really exist but it might be deeply hidden and obscured inside an ocean of more or less deliberate human (and maybe non-human too?) fakes.

A careful and recent collection of informative facts concerning new projects by the military – such as new advanced models and/or projects of UAV, UCAV, OAV and drones in general – seems to show quite clearly that these vehicles might simulate the shape of an UFO indeed (for instance, we might mention the present X-45, X-47, Taranis and Neuron experimental projects) but not at all its typical flight and illumination characteristics.

On the other side, the myth of the “Aurora” (or “TR-3”) aircraft – allegedly propelled by a sort of anti-gravitational engine – seems to be more a metropolitan legend running through the corridors of UFO conferences, than a true fact. If, for instance, the US government had really at its disposal such a futuristic aircraft, there would not have been any need to spend a lot of money to deploy the F-22 and the F-35 multi-role fighters as it happens now. And probably recent wars would have been won in a much shorter time.

7. Conclusive remarks

Searching for a science of UFO phenomena and doing rational witness investigations should be the main tasks of a team. Of course neither of these scenarios should escape our consideration: someone might fake the phenomena themselves in order to “cover” a true exogenous presence in our skies. Or maybe all UFO phenomena are the result of a sophisticated fake, which has been planned and created by a form of “dark intelligence” whose scope is to deceive and control us, perhaps with the collaboration of some obscure leading personages living and acting on this planet.

Only science and its methodology will establish what the final answer is, and in both cases the arrival of a clear answer is expected to be a big step forward in the walk for knowledge and full consciousness of mankind of its potentiality and freedom in its own planet, a beautiful planet as well as its inhabitants.

A scientific approach can only render all of us leaders in our home, whatever will be the answer to the big question.

And if true UFO phenomena resulted to be really of alien origin we would have the possibility to learn from them what one day, we’ll also be able to do ourselves.

If all the stars, according to their mass, evolve in a similar way all over the Universe, this might be the same for the inhabitants of their planets and their technology.

All this said, without excluding another possibility: that, dimensionally speaking, the Universe is not only a “flat” composed of many apartments, but a “skyscraper” composed in its turn of many flats that are one over the other. After all the mathematical framework of superstring theory already shows that the Universe is multi-dimensional, and in other dimensions of the Universe as a whole ,maybe laws of physics that are different from ours might exist, including the process in which life forms are born and develop.

After all, in our Universe itself, it seems that alternative life forms may exist in addition to the ones based on Carbon or Silicon biochemistry, as an example: life forms based on plasma.

But here we are speaking only of what happens inside our “flat”, not of what might happen inside the other flats of the “skyscraper”.

Probably more things exist in the “sky” than whatever a human mind can imagine and maybe there, among the labyrinths of superior dimensions, immeasurably evolved beings might nest unnoticed, together with their *technology* of Matter, of Energy, of Life and of Mind.




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